Another year has rolled by (damn, I really don’t update this blog much, do I?) and Securi-Tay IV is coming up. I’ll be speaking about security issues related to serialisation and deserialisation of data in modern programming languages, including PHP and C#.
My colleague FreakyClown will be talking about robbing banks for a living, which promises to be amusing at the very least (which reminds me – ask me about coathangers and server rooms when you see me).
Most importantly though: we (and by that I mean Portcullis) are sponsoring the bar this year! I hope to see you all there for plenty of drunken security rambling.
Just a quick tip for anyone doing a code review of a Java EE web application: LAPSE+ is a very useful tool to have in the arsenal, whether you’ve got the original source or just the JAR/WAR file.
In my case, the client provided me with a single .WAR file which contained the application. As it was a large application, I didn’t really fancy digging through everything manually with JD-GUI, although it is an excellent Java decompiler. I decided to take the opportunity to give LAPSE+ a try.
Here’s what you’ll need:
- The latest JRE. Ok, so this is technically optional, but why would you run an old JRE? ;]
- JD-GUI Java Decompiler
- Eclipse IDE for Java EE – if you’ve already got a different version of Eclipse installed, I’m told you can load other versions on top.
- LAPSE+ plugin.
You can also grab a PDF instruction manual for LAPSE from the same site. However, be aware that I found some of the information in there to be a bit misleading, e.g. needing a specific version of Eclipse. Also, don’t worry if your client provided you a project for a different IDE, such as IntelliJ IDEA – it doesn’t really matter.
First step is to get Eclipse set up. Drop the .jar file from the LAPSE+ archive into the plugins directory of Eclipse. (Re)start Eclipse, then go to Window -> View -> Other… and select the items relating to LAPSE+. A little toolbar should appear on the right with blue spherical buttons. These are your LAPSE+ windows.
Next step is to load your code into a project. This is split up into two parts, but if you’ve already got an Eclipse project for the site’s source code, you can skip the first part. Otherwise, you’ll need to extract the code from your archive and make a project for it. Start by loading the JAR (rename the .WAR to .JAR if needs be) into JD-GUI. It should decompile the archive and let you browse the code. Go to File -> Export all Sources, and save the resulting ZIP file somewhere. This archive now contains all your decompiled source code, split into directories based on the namespace hierarchy.
Now, go back to Eclipse and create an empty Java project, filling the wizard out with whatever values suit you. Once that’s created, go into the project explorer tree and find the src directory, then right click it and select Import. Select your newly exported ZIP file, and Eclipse will populate your project with your reverse-engineered source. Now right-click the project and select Build. In all likelihood, it’ll throw a whole load of errors due to imperfect decompilation – don’t worry, we don’t really care, because LAPSE+ can still function with a broken build.
Once you’ve got your project set up, go to the individual LAPSE+ windows and browse through what they found. You might need to manually refresh them to run through the checking process. In my case, I found about a 10:1 ratio of false positives, which isn’t actually too bad for code scanning. Within an hour or so of digging through the results I’d found a couple of concrete XSS bugs that I’d not spotted yet, plus a whole bunch of potential XSS bugs that I couldn’t immediately find vectors for, and a whole variety of other interesting stuff to dig through. It’s a really nice way to cut down a 400kLoC project into manageable target points.
I’m doing a talk about cryptography at Securi-Tay 2014 on the 15th of January, up in Dundee, Scotland. The talk is aimed at people who are interested in cryptography from a practical perspective, but are put off by the slew of hieroglyphs and maths-speak that tends to plague the field. The talk is entitled “Breaking bad crypto without breaking your brain”. I promise that there are no Breaking Bad references in there, primarily because I seem to be the only person on earth that still hasn’t started watching it.
Securi-Tay is a great conference, organised by Ethical Hacking students at the university, with some help from other nice folk and sponsors. I attended (and spoke) last year, and it was great from both technical and social aspects. There’s a really good line-up of talks so far, and it’s always great to see the student talks dealing with things from brand new perspectives, as well as the staple talks from professionals and seasoned researchers.
Tickets are £20 a head, and there’s free booze after the con, so it’s an absolute bargain – come join us!
In my previous post I talked about a vulnerability in Steam which allows you to bypass UAC. I’m going to be totally transparent here: I fucked up. I wrote the draft post a few days back, then did some more work on the vulnerability. I discovered something much more serious in the process. I posted last night’s blog post at 1am, tired as hell, and in my sleep-deprived state I completely neglected to update it properly, and there are several mistakes and bits of missing information. The draft went out and confused a lot of people. So, for that, I apologise. I’m going to leave it there so people can see it, because it’ll remind me not to do that next time.
Now, onto the real impact of the vulnerability: I can leverage it to gain code execution as SYSTEM. How? Well, it turns out that
Steam.exe gives itself one unusual privilege – the privilege to debug other processes. This is called
SeDebugPrivilege and one of its features is that it allows the process to bypass access control lists (ACLs) on processes when you call
OpenProcess, i.e. the process can open a handle to any process it likes, with any privilege it likes.
Here’s how you can elevate to SYSTEM when you have
- Open a handle to a process that is running as SYSTEM, with
PROCESS_ALL_ACCESSas the access flag.
VirtualAllocExto allocate a block of memory in the remote process, with the executable flag set.
WriteProcessMemoryto copy a block of shellcode into that memory buffer.
CreateRemoteThreadto create a new thread in the remote process, whose start address is the base address of the memory allocation.
- Bingo! You just got a privesc to SYSTEM.
In this case, once you’ve got code execution inside Steam, you can utilise this trick to escalate yourself to SYSTEM. There’s your privesc vuln.
Like many other gamers, I love Steam. Not only is it ridiculously convenient, but it’s also become a pretty awesome platform for indie game developers to get their games out there. It provides a online store platform for 54 million users, and most of the time it does an excellent job. That’s partly the reason why I’m so frustrated with Valve right now.
I spent a good few hours playing with a bug I found in Steam, and then made an effort to provide Valve with a clear, concise, detailed security vulnerability notification. Their response has been one of pure opacity, with not a single ounce of professional courtesy.
On Tuesday 17th September 2013, I submitted a vulnerability report to Valve, the full text of which follows:
I have discovered a vulnerability within the Steam client application that allows for arbitrary memory copies to be initiated within the Steam process. These issues can be triggered at multiple crash sites, and range in severity from unexploitable crash (denial of service) to full compromise of the process.
The shared memory section GameOverlayRender_PIDStream_mem-IPCWrapper does not have an ACL applied to it, so any user may open a handle to it with all privileges. This is especially important in multi-user systems such as terminal services, or in situations where other potentially risky processes are sandboxed into other user accounts within the same session.
By opening a handle to the section and writing random garbage data, then signalling the Steam3Master_SharedMemLock wait handle (which also does not have an ACL) it is possible to cause the Steam client to crash. I have discovered multiple locations where the crash may occur, and many are within REP MOVS copy instructions. In some cases it is possible to control the destination address (EDI), the source address (ESI), and/or the memory at the target site of ESI. In some cases other general purpose registers were modified. By carefully crafting a payload, it would certainly be possible to cause code execution via heap corruption, e.g. by overwriting a callback pointer. Despite the use of ASLR and DEP on the process, certain modules (e.g. Steam.dll, steamclient.dll, CSERHelper.dll) are not marked as ASLR supporting. It is possible to use a technique called Return Orientated Programming (ROP) to bypass ASLR and DEP in cases such as this, where there are non-ASLR modules loaded into the process.
I have created a proof of concept application, which can be provided upon request, though it should be trivial for a developer to discover the source of the vulnerabilities.
The fix I would propose is that an appropriate explicit ACL is set on the afforementioned objects, enforcing that only the user that created the Steam process can access the object. Additionally, I would recommend that proper bounds and sanity checking is enforced on the shared memory object. Furthermore, it would be prudent to ensure that memory copy operations (e.g. memcpy) are performed using SDL approved functions, such as memcpy_s.
Responsible disclosure policy:
This ticket serves as initial notification of a security issue. Please respond within 30 days, detailing your acceptance or rejection of the report, the proposed mitigation (if any), and patch timescale. If no satisfactory response is received within 30 days, it will be assumed that you do not consider the issues in this report to constitute a security issue, and they will be publicly disclosed. My normal public disclosure timescale is 90 days after initial notification, but this can be extended upon reasonable request. Most importantly, please remember that this is an invitation to work with me to help improve your product and increase the security posture of your customers. Should you require further information about the issue, or any other aspects of this notification, please contact me.
On Sunday 22nd of September 2013, after further pondering the issue, I provided this addendum to the report:
On further consideration, the impact of this issue is not exactly as described above. Due to the location of the shared memory section object within the object manager hierarchy, it is not accessible across sessions unless the reading process is running in an administrative context. This negates any cross-session privilege escalation, so one user session cannot directly attack another in this manner.
However, an additional impact has been discovered. If the attacking process runs in the same session as the user (e.g. malware) and waits for Steam to escalate its privileges to an administrative context via User Account Control (UAC), it may then exploit the vulnerability and gain UAC escalation. This completely bypasses the UAC process and could allow local malware to jump from a limited or guest user context to a full administrative context. Not only is this directly problematic for home users, but it becomes significantly important for domain environments where workstation security is enforced by group policy, which is bypassable via the administrative security context.
I feel that this new impact scenario is more significant, since it targets the most common configuration of Steam, i.e. a single-session machine.
As noted before, please feel free to contact me if you have any questions. For absolute clarity, the cut-off point for non-responsiveness is the 17th of October 2013, i.e. 30 days after initial notification. Please respond before then as per the responsible disclosure policy detailed above.
I recognise that this isn’t exactly an earth-shattering vulnerability, as UAC isn’t “officially” a privilege segregation. That said, it’s significant enough to warrant fixing, especially as it results in memory corruption. Furthermore, I’m sure someone could find a way to utilise the issue in a much more interesting way than I did.
A Valve employee under the name of “Support Tech Alex” responded the next day, apologising for the delay and informing me that the details would be forwarded to the appropriate department. Excellent, I thought. I thanked him, and waited. A week passed, then two. Still no response.
On Wednesday 9th October, I discovered that they had closed the ticket. I asked why, and their response was as follows:
Unfortunately, you will not receive a notification about any action taken as a result of this report.
If you have a business related inquiry, please visit http://www.valvesoftware.com/
If you have any further difficulty, please let us know.
This annoys me, and I think it demonstrates a fundamental lack of understanding of whitehats on Valve’s part. In my opinion and experience, what drives a whitehat isn’t a lust for rewards, or free swag, or even being thanked by the company (though that is nice). What drives a whitehat is the quest for technical knowledge, and the satisfaction of having helped fixed a security issue. When a vendor cuts a whitehat out of the loop, and leaves them hanging without even saying whether they’re going to look into it, it kills all motivation. Not only is it unprofessional, but it’s also downright rude to reward a person’s hard work with little more than contempt.
I didn’t go into this expecting Valve to pay me or even send me a T-shirt for finding the bug. I did, however, at least expect to get something along the lines of “thanks, we’ll fix that, should get pushed out in the couple of months”. Instead what I got was opacity and avoidance, and that’s not the way to deal with security notifications. Hopefully a public shaming will do you some good, Valve. Treat whitehats well, and you’ll do well. Treat whitehats badly, and you might find that they take their reports elsewhere.
Update: In my sleep-deprived state last night, I forgot to update this draft before publishing it. There’s actually a much bigger vulnerability here: Steam gives itself SeDebugPrivilege, which allows it to bypass ACLs on OpenProcess calls, meaning it can inject code into any other process on the system, including those running as SYSTEM. It’s a full privesc. I’ve written a follow-up post that explains this in more detail.
Dropbox has become a daily part of my life. I rely on it to synchronise data between my growing set of devices. But how much of an impact does it have on the security of my system? I decided to find out by digging around in exactly what it does to my machine, or more specifically, the processes running on it.
The first thing I want to check out is what modules are loaded into various processes. Tools like Dropbox like to extend the functionality of other programs using shell extensions, which are nothing more than specially designed DLLs loaded into process memory. Let’s see what we’ve got…
Interesting! Looks like we’ve got two extension DLLs, one 32-bit and one 64-bit. These are likely used to add extra context menu options when right-clicking on files. Now let’s find out where they get injected. For this, we’ll use good ol’ trusty Process Explorer. By going to Find » Find Handle or DLL, we can search for the DLLs in running processes.
It looks like it’s being loaded into processes that have windows created, which implies it’s probably an AppInit DLL, but it turns out not to be the case – the registry key doesn’t contain that DLL. This implies that there’s something more active going on, and that Dropbox actively selects which processes to inject into. I may be mistaken here, I’m not sure. Either way, though, it’s a little odd that it chose to inject into Notepad++ and other innocuous processes.
(Update: thanks to zeha and 312c on Reddit for pointing out that it’s likely injected via the standard file browser shell, due to the Dropbox icon in the favourites list)
The biggest problem becomes clear when you take a look at the module in a running process. In this case, it’s Firefox:
Notice that the Dropbox extension DLL doesn’t have the ASLR flag set. This means that any vulnerability in Firefox becomes a lot easier to exploit, since the Dropbox module provides an unrandomised anchor for a ROP chain. Ignore PowerHookMenu.dll here – I’m aware of that issue and have notified the developer, but it’s infrequently seen on people’s machines so it’s not so bad.
Let’s just quickly verify that the DLL isn’t ASLR enabled at all, by checking the DLL characteristics flags in the file…
Definitely not enabled.
Anyway, the take-away issue here is that Dropbox arbitrarily injects an ASLR-disabled DLL into various 32-bit and 64-bit processes, causing significant degradation in the efficacy of ASLR across the entire system. With no ASLR, an attacker could craft an exploit payload that utilises executable code within the injected DLL to product a ROP chain, leading to code execution. This is significantly problematic in high-risk programs like web browsers and torrent clients.
I notified Dropbox of this back when version 18.104.22.168 was the latest version, but got not response. I’ve since tried again, but had no luck. I’m hoping that going public will give them the kick they need to get it fixed. In the meantime, a good mitigation is to install EMET and set a policy to enforce Mandatory ASLR. All of this was re-tested against Dropbox 2.0.22, with versions 22.214.171.124 of both the 32-bit and 64-bit DLLs. The operating system used was Windows 7 x64 SP1.
Update: Brad “spender” Spengler (of grsec fame) has noted that the latest version of Dropbox has ASLR enabled for the 64-bit DLL, but still doesn’t on 32-bit.
Update 2: Dropbox responds: “Our engineers are aware of this issue and actively working on fixing it. Unfortunately, I can’t give you an exact timeline that a fix will become available. If you have any additional questions or concerns please let me know.”
When I moved into my flat, I found that the previous tenant had left behind his Sky Broadband router. Awesome – a new toy to break! Sadly I got bogged down with silly things like moving house and going to work, so I didn’t get a chance to play with it. Until now, that is.
This isn’t the first embedded device I’ve played with. Over the years I’ve desoldered EEPROMs from routers, done unspeakable things to photocopiers, and even overvolted an industrial UPS unit via SNMP. The router I shall be discussing in this post, however, was one of the easier and more generic bits of kit I’ve played with.
Now, a little about the device. The model is DG934, and the full part number is 272-10452-01. It’s an ADSL router supplied by Sky (also known as BSkyB) as part of their old broadband package, but it’s actually manufactured by Netgear. It’s got four ethernet ports, an ADSL (phone) port, and takes a 12V power supply. Internally, it runs on the Atheros chipset. Unfortunately, this being a UK-only device, there’s no FCC ID – if there had been, I could’ve looked it up on the FCC OET database and found all sorts of internal photos and test data, which is often valuable when looking at the hardware aspects.
My first job was to power it on and get into the config panel. Since the previous tenant clearly wasn’t security conscious, he’d kindly left the device in its default configuration and I was able to log into the configuration interface using the default admin / sky credentials. I exported the config file to my machine, and took a look. In this case it’s plaintext, so there’s nothing to break here, but it’s not exactly good practice – it includes the passwords for WiFi and the configuration interface.
I ran nmap against the device and got the following results:
PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 80/tcp open http BSkyB DG934G http config 5000/tcp open sip BSkyB/1.0 UPnP/1.0 miniupnpd/1.0 (Status: 501 Not Implemented) 8080/tcp open http BSkyB DG934G http config 32764/tcp open unknown
Interestingly, the configuration site was available on both 80 and 8080. This seems to be the norm for many routers, but I have no idea why. UPnP on port 5000 is always a fun one to spot, and we’ll take a look at this shortly. Finally, there’s an unknown protocol running on port 32764.
For messing with UPnP, I have the UPnP Developer Tools for Windows. They’re mainly written in C# and are open source, so you can always port to Mono if you want. I used Device Spy to get the following info:
- It’s a BSkyB DG934 Router.
- The firmware date is 2007-08-27.
- You can pull out stats such as total bytes sent/received, total packets sent/received, and uptime in seconds.
- Port mapping functions are available.
- SetEnabledForInternet isn’t present – shame, really, since it leads to a nice DoS condition.
Sadly there’s not much you can play with here.
Next, we’ll take a look at that weird unknown protocol on port 32764. When connecting to it, the string “MMcS” is returned, along with two binary IP representations: 255.255.255.0 and 0.0.0.0. I tried playing around with this, but honestly I have no idea what it’s for. Google returned a bunch of people asking what it was, and nobody with any real answers. Potentially it’s for Multimedia Class Schedule Server, but that’s speculation at best. Again, no luck at fun stuff here.
Finally, let’s dig into the firmware. Instead of taking the device apart, desoldering the firmware EEPROM, and interfacing to it with a BusPirate to rip the data off, I decided to go the easy route and download the openly available firmware from Netgear. The file provided is a flat binary, with some interesting data inside it. It’s partitioned into various sections, with conveniently obvious data offsets (e.g. 0x10000). In order to properly dissect the file, I used binwalk. In BackTrack 5 it’s located in
/pentest/reverse-engineering/binwalk/ and requires you to manually set the magic file via the
root@bt:~# binwalk -m /pentest/reverse-engineering/binwalk/magic.binwalk ~/dg834gt_1_02_09.img DECIMAL HEX DESCRIPTION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- :1248 0x4E0 CFE boot loader 1288 0x508 CFE boot loader 4177 0x1051 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0xA4, dictionary size: 285474816 bytes, uncompressed size: 256 bytes 7951 0x1F0F LZMA compressed data, properties: 0xC2, dictionary size: 556793856 bytes, uncompressed size: 67108881 bytes 8087 0x1F97 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0x82, dictionary size: 556793856 bytes, uncompressed size: 67108881 bytes 8227 0x2023 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0xC2, dictionary size: 556793856 bytes, uncompressed size: 67108881 bytes 8371 0x20B3 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0x82, dictionary size: 556793856 bytes, uncompressed size: 67108881 bytes 10563 0x2943 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0xDF, dictionary size: 555220992 bytes, uncompressed size: 167272448 bytes 65792 0x10100 CramFS filesystem, big endian size 2879488 version #2 sorted_dirs CRC 0x51df60ff, edition 0, 1975 blocks, 938 files 1016865 0xF8421 ARJ archive data, v193, backup, original name: \230\346+\210\365 ... [snip]
This gives us a pretty good idea of what we’re dealing with. First, there’s a Common Firmware Environment (CFE) bootloader, which is Broadcom’s alternative to U-Boot. There’s some irony here in that Broadcom and Atheros are competitors, yet CFE is being used on an Atheros chipset device. Anyway, there’s a bunch of LZMA junk after that which looks like various bits of firmware and a Linux kernel image. The bit we’re really interested in is the CramFS data. As a side note here, it looks like binwalk was a bit overzealous in identifying an ARJ archive at the end (hence the corrupted original name) so we can assume that the CramFS block takes up the remainder of the file.
In order to extract the filesystem, we can use good old
dd. The following should suffice:
dd size=256 skip=257 count=20000 if=dg834gt_1_02_09.img of=firmware.cramfs
Note that 257 * 256 = 65792, which is 0x10100, i.e. the offset of the data we want to pull out. I stuck a really big count in there because we’re reading to the end of the file. Now, you’re going to want to grab some tools to work with CramFS:
sudo apt-get install cramfsprogs fusecram
This provides you with the modules needed to mount CramFS volumes, as well as some tools to help you along the way. Now we can mount the filesystem:
root@bt:~# sudo mount -t cramfs -o loop ~/firmware.cramfs /media/firmware/ mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/loop1, missing codepage or helper program, or other error In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try dmesg | tail or so
Hmmm, that’s odd. Let’s see what
dmesg has to say about this…
root@bt:~# dmesg | tail -n 1 [ 4394.319907] cramfs: wrong endianess
Aha! A fun fact about CramFS is that file systems have endianness as per the architecture they were created on. Since the router is big-endian and my box is little-endian, I need to convert it. Thankfully,
cramfsprogs includes a tool called
cramfsswap that flips the endianness of a provided image. Side note: if you get “wrong magic” as an error, you didn’t extract the right blocks of data, or the file system isn’t CramFS.
root@bt:~# cramfsswap ./firmware.cramfs ./firmware-conv.cramfs Filesystem is big endian, will be converted to little endian. Filesystem contains 937 files. CRC: 0xe86ad3b0 root@bt:~# sudo mount -t cramfs -o loop ~/firmware-conv.cramfs /media/firmware/ root@bt:~#
Excellent! Now to dig around inside the files.
root@bt:~# ls -l /media/firmware/ total 20 drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 452 1970-01-01 01:00 bin drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 1970-01-01 01:00 dev lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 8 1970-01-01 01:00 etc -> /tmp/etc drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 784 1970-01-01 01:00 lib drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 1970-01-01 01:00 proc drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 176 1970-01-01 01:00 sbin drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 0 1970-01-01 01:00 tmp drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 116 1970-01-01 01:00 usr lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 8 1970-01-01 01:00 var -> /tmp/var lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 8 1970-01-01 01:00 www -> /tmp/www drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3900 1970-01-01 01:00 www.deu drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3908 1970-01-01 01:00 www.eng drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 3824 1970-01-01 01:00 www.fre
There’s a full listing on pastebin, if you’re interested. It’s worth noting that if you can mount the filesystem, can see the directories and files inside it, but can’t read the file data, then you probably didn’t copy the entire filesystem and it’s missing chunks of data. Anyway, this looks pretty typical. We can see a very basic file system that comprises all the runtime parts of the device, excluding the kernel and any ramfs stuff. Here’s what I found:
- The three www prefixed directories contain the template files used for the administration panel.
- /bin contains busybox binaries.
- /lib contains the kinds of libraries you’d expect on a router, e.g. libcrypt, libupnp, libpppoe, etc.
- /lib/modules contains various kernel modules for the router, such as the push button driver and Atheros HAL.
- /sbin contains various binaries such as ifconfig, insmod, lsmod, etc.
- /usr/bin contains four binaries, including one called test.
- /usr/etc contains the default config files and various scripts.
- /usr/sbin contains various binaries for daemons (including reaim and iptables), as well as some for performing maintenance operations, e.g. WiFi control operations.
- /usr/upnp contains the definitions for the UPnP endpoint.
The most interesting directory was /usr/etc, which contains both passwd and an svn.info. The passwd file shows only root and nobody, which leads me to believe that all services run as root. The svn.info file has all sorts of interesting info in it:
Path: . URL: file:///svn/Platform/DG834_PN/Source Repository Root: file:///svn/Platform/DG834_PN Repository UUID: 25bc2c04-8815-0410-823d-fa30465ac5aa Revision: 93 Node Kind: directory Schedule: normal Last Changed Author: ethan Last Changed Rev: 93 Last Changed Date: 2007-02-16 16:23:45 +0800 (Fri, 16 Feb 2007) Boot Loader version: CFE version 1.0.37-5.11 for BCM96348
So we now know that Netgear use(d) SVN for their source control, that “Ethan” is the guy developing the firmware for the DG834, and that we’re running CFE 1.0.37-5.11 on the BCM96348 SoC IC. Hi, Ethan!
I’m going to leave this here for now, primarily because it’s almost 4am, but also because the point of this blog post was to show just how much information you can dig out of a device without even touching it with a screwdriver, or opening a manual. Keep in mind that the techniques I’ve shown here should apply to many routers and other small embedded devices. At some point in the future I’ll get around to digging into some of their custom binaries, as well as their HTTPD. If I find anything interesting, I’ll be sure to post an update. Also, let me know if you’ve got any spare routers you want me to dig into when I get a spare few hours – I’m always happy to take donations!